This post covers how to list files, show package information and extract the contents of an RPM package. There will be example commands presented for extracting RPM package files and showing information for packages that are both installed, and not-installed on a system.
Extract files from an RPM (quick start)
$ rpm2cpio ./packagecloud-test-1.1-1.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idmv
Continue reading this post for more information about listing and extracting RPMs.
What is an RPM package?
An RPM package is simply a header structure on top of a
CPIO archive. The package itself is comprised of four sections: a header with a leading identifier (magic number) that identifies the file as an RPM package, a signature to verify the integrity of the package, the header or ‘tagged’ data containing package information, version numbers, and copyright messaging, and the archive containing the actual program files.
List files in an RPM package file using the
The RPM package manager
rpm comes with various utilities to interact with packages. The following command will list all the files inside an RPM package:
$ rpm -qlp ./path/to/test.rpm
$ rpm -qlpv ./packagecloud-test-1.1-1.x86_64.rpm -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 8286 Jul 16 2014 /usr/local/bin/packagecloud_hello
In this example, the
rpm command is used with the flag
-q to specify it as a query command,
-l to list the files in the package, and
-p so it knows to query the uninstalled package file. The
-v flag (verbose) just provides additional information (permissions, owner, etc.) for the sake of this example. As we can see, the package installs an executable binary called
List files in an installed RPM package
rpm command with
-l flags to list the files from an installed RPM package:
$ rpm -ql packagecloud-test
NOTE the use of a package’s name in the previous command and not the path to a specific RPM package.
cpio archive from RPM packages
To extract files from an RPM package you must first extract a
cpio archive from the package itself. RedHat provides a utility called
rpm2cpio which does exactly that:
$ rpm2cpio ./packagecloud-test-1.1-1.x86_64.rpm
Extract files from an RPM package’s
rpm2cpio command will output (to stdout) a
cpio archive from the RPM package. To extract the package files we’ll use the output from
rpm2cpio and then use the
cpio command to extract and create the files we need.
$ rpm2cpio ./packagecloud-test-1.1-1.x86_64.rpm | cpio -idmv ./usr/local/bin/packagecloud_hello 17 blocks
cpio command copies files to and from archives. In the example above, we use
cpio with the
-i flag to extract the files from the archive,
-d to create the leading directories where needed, and
-m to preserve the file modification times when creating files. The
-v flag (verbose) is to list the files processed for the sake of this example.
The result of our previous example is the creation of a
./usr/ folder in our working directory containing the files from the RPM package
$ file usr/local/bin/packagecloud_hello usr/local/bin/packagecloud_hello: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.24, BuildID[sha1]=0x77fe4f2fa02ee973bf4d74867729e950fcde7107, not stripped
NOTE that simply extracting package files to the root directory does NOT properly install a package. Use the
rpm tools to correctly install RPM packages.
Show RPM package preinstall and postinstall scripts
To show the scripts that will run when a package is installed or uninstalled from a system, use the
--scripts flag when querying a package using
rpm. The following command will show the scripts for an uninstalled package
$ rpm -qp --scripts ./packagecloud-test-1.1-1.x86_64.rpm
This will output something like:
preinstall scriptlet (using /bin/sh): # Do something postinstall scriptlet (using /bin/sh): if [ $1 -eq 1 ] ; then # Do another thing fi preuninstall scriptlet (using /bin/sh): if [ $1 -eq 0 ] ; then # Do something else fi postuninstall scriptlet (using /bin/sh): # Do things here, too
To view the scriptlets of an already installed package, you can use the following syntax when using
$ rpm -q --scripts <packagename>
View contents of RPM packages on remote repositories using
repoquery is provided by the
yum-utils package, make sure it’s installed:
$ yum install yum-utils
repoquery command is used to query information from
Yum repositories installed on the system. By default, the
repoquery command will download the
Yum repo metadata and update the cache. To run
repoquery entirely from the
Yum cache, use the
--cache flag. To list the contents of a package, pass the
--list flag to the
$ repoquery --list <packagename>
$ repoquery --list packagecloud-test /usr/local/bin/packagecloud_hello
This can be useful when viewing the contents of packages that aren’t downloaded or installed on your the system.
repoquery will only provide information on packages avaliable in the configured
Understanding how packages interact with the systems they’re installed on can be helpful in day-to-day operations. By knowing that the RPM package is comprised of a
cpio archive and header data, we can extract the information needed with already existing tools (
cpio) and use the RPM toolchain to query, inspect, and view the contents of an RPM package.